SURFACE, IN THE FILM, TENSION

“Actually penetrating the meniscus is not easy for small insects like most caddis. In LaFontaine’s book he quotes aquatic biologist, Ken Thompson, who equates the emerging process from pupa to adult in a way that we can all understand. “An example, in human terms, would be the amount of energy required for a full-grown person to escape if he were covered with three feet of dirt”. After swimming all the way to the surface you can see why the caddis must rest before attempting to break through the meniscus.”(GVFF re Caddis Emerging)